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FICE Sixtieth Anniversary History Book

Revised Contents List : February 2006

Preface  

The purpose of the book, a summary of what FICE is, its  aims, structure, and a summary of types of activities FICE undertakes

Acknowledgements                                                                                                         

1            The Last Sixty Years                                                                                   Nigel Cantwell

The political, economic and social context  in which FICE has developed and functioned, from the aftermath of WWII to the present day, including the collapse of communism.

Internationalisation of children' s issues, e.g. trafficking, HIV/AIDS, migration, drugs

Major trends in childcare, e.g. the move away from institutional care, growth of children' s rights movement

2            1945 - 1948      Events Leading to the Foundation                                Irene Knopfl Nobs

War-damaged children and young people

The creation of children' s communities

Children' s communities and community aid in the post-war period

Prime movers : Elisabeth Rotten and Bernard Drzewieski

3            1949 - 1978              Organisation, Development and Transformation    Irene Knopfl Nobs

Goals, methods and National Sections

UNESCO and FICE

International youth camps and training courses for childcare staff

First difficulties

Ideas and initiatives : new thinking on child development and the New Education Fellowship

Wider goals and new National Sections

International conferences and congresses

Criticism calls for a new standpoint

FICE and children with handicaps

From statute revisions to the question of a change of name

4            1979 - 1988      FICE on its Way                                                        Irene Knopfl Nobs

FICE : an institution made by people

FICE on its way

A small change in name means a change in identity

And the Future?

5            1988 - 1994      FICE Expanding

UN Convention on Rights of the Child

Forty years of UNESCO - Paris Conference 1988

New members - Russia, North America, South Africa, Romania etc.

CERF-FICE 1992?

FICE Code of Ethics

Publications - Bulletins, Gottesmann books, Glossary

Congresses - St Gallen 1988, Prague 1990, Luxembourg 1992, Milwaukee 1994

Hadasseh-Neurim - Conference  and Declaration on Training

Trogen - Conference 1988?

PEP

Revision of the Constitution

6            1994 - 2000      Fifty Years of FICE

Alps-Rhine Group

Berlin - Conference  and AIDS/HIV statement

Congresses - Copenhagen 1996, Paris 1998 (Fiftieth anniversary), Maastricht 2000

FICE Europe

Educateurs sans Frontieres

7            2000 - 2006      New Ways of Communicating

Changes of Secretary General

Congresses - Berlin 2002, Glasgow 2004, Sarajevo 2006

Membership changes - Baltic and former USSR, South-East Europe, ANCE-France

Peace / Friendship Camps

Quality 4 Children

Links with other organisations - AIEJI, ENQASP etc.

Website and new ways of communicating

FICE Foundation and Anton Tobe' s projects

Sarajevo Declaration

8            National Sections

National Sections involved in the foundation of FICE

Different types of National Section - size, membership, type of organisation

National programmes of activities - seminars, training, publications

Joint activities - visits, projects, exchanges

Subgroupings - Alps-Rhine, South-East Europe

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2006 - 2008              Approaching Sixty

Congress - Helsinki 2008 (Sixtieth Anniversary)

Looking to the future

National Sections' plans

FICE International's plans

Evaluation of FICE' s development and contribution to international childcare in brief

Changing roles and nature of professional bodies and the childcare profession

Trends in child care and challenges ahead

Potential for FICE's future

Appendices

A           List of Officers

B            List of Congresses

C              Summary of National Sections

D           Malmo Declaration

E            FICE Code of Ethics

F               Hadasseh-Neurim Declaration

G              HIV/AIDS Statement

H           Iraq Declaration

I              Sarajevo Declaration

J             Statutes

K           List of Publications

L              References

DCL

Last revised 01 03 06

INTRODUCTION

Anniversaries are usually celebrated after 25, 50, 75, or 100 years. So what motivates FICE-International to commemorate its 40th anniversary with this short historical sketch? Could it be misgivings that FICE might never reach its 50th year? "Not likely!" will be the cry from all those who know the vitality of FICE-International and its national sections.
A birthday needs no explanation; it just needs to be celebrated, and FICE as a child of UNESCO is doing just this' In 1948, UNESCO gave the impulse for the founding of FICE, which took place on July 10, 1948 at the Pestalozzi Children's Village in Trogen, Switzerland. Representatives from eleven countries were present. In 1988, FICE will be celebrating the 40 years of its existence at the Anniversary Congress in St. Gallen and at the place of its founding, Trogen. In 1948, the organization brought together a few heads of children's communities and several individuals; today, it is the international umbrella organization for all questions concerning community child care. It has the status of a Non-governmental Organization (NGO) of UNESCO, UNICEF and ECOSOC. It is neutral in matters of politics and religion and has national sections in nineteen countries.

This brochure will provide a short overview of the history of FICE. For years, the letters "FICE" stood for "Federation Internationale des Communautes d'Enfants", which was then changed to today's "Federation Internationale des Communautes Educatives" - the initials remain the same, but the small change in name stands for a historical development. In some UNESCO documents, FICE can be found under the initials IFCC, International Federation of Children's Communities. The FICE-IFCC was the first educational organization founded by UNESCO.

Unity in diversity can be seen in the life and the organizational structure of the FICE national sections: unity in the goal of community child care, diversity in the names of the organizations and in the various points of main effort of the national sections. This diversity led to the question: should this short history be written from the standpoint of the umbrella organization or from that of the national sections? Should a sketch be
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drawn from the UNESCO standpoint, or should emphasis be put on a comparison with the development of other, similar international organizations? The purpose of this survey is not to focus on the past, but rather to draw the strength and confidence for the future by following the thread of the developments that have led us to the present.

Mrs. Irene Knöpfel Nobs studied the development and early history of FICE as part of her master's thesis at the Pedagogical Institute at the University of Zurich. She made an admirable first draft of the present text. Comments, valuable additions, and modifications then came from various long-standing friends of FICE to make a reworking of the text possible. We made no attempt to write a complete history because our text was to remain brief. Thanks to the help of the many friends and colleagues, the editing and translation work have been done in time for our Anniversary. Our heartfelt thanks to all who have taken part!
FICE-International
Prof. Dr. H. Tuggener Dr. F. Züsli-Niscosi
President Secretary General
Zurich, July 10, 1988

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1945 - 1948: EVENTS LEADING TO THE FOUNDING War-damaged Children and Young People
Due to the lack of comprehensive international regulations for the protection of civilian populations, the impact of World War 11 on the young people of the warring countries was disastrous: children and young people were actually the sector of the population most damaged by the war!
This could be seen in many ways. Twenty-five million civilians died in World War II. Deportations, forced labour, mass population movements, death and undernourishment were an ever-present reality, varying more or less according to the country and the population group. The social network which supported these people was partially destroyed at the end of the war; there remained many orphans and neglected and delinquent youngsters who presented educational problems.
The Creation of Children's Communities
After 1945, many individuals and institutions set out to help these war damaged young people. In addition to material aid, another kind of support system came into being: the founding of child care establishments to care for war-damaged children and adolescents. Such communities arose spontaneously - often independently of one another, and without financial resources - in Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Poland, Switzerland, and Hungary, and were given various names: children's villages, children's towns, children's republics, children's homes or youth settlements.
Individual educators in conjunction with voluntary bodies took the initiative to found these establishments. Although their educational concepts and characteristics varied, they had one thought in common: raising war damaged children called for new educational ideas! The main characteristic of these children's communities was that of group or cooperative tion - these children were to be raised as a new generation filled with hope for peace and capable of international co-operation.

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An exemplary experiment among all these new foundations was the idea of a "little Europe" in the Pestalozzi Children's Village in Trogen, Switzerland . Even before the project took on concrete form, this children's village drew world-wide interest in the educational community, even though communications were difficult at the time.
Children's Communities and Community Aid in the Post-war Period
Countless public and private charity endeavours set out to combat the terrible distress following World War II. These were a spontaneous response to emergency needs. A necessary prerequisite for community reconstruction was material aid. Help on the material level was also distributed to the newly-founded children's communities, and thus this new form of children's institution became very widely known. Only this way could gradual public recognition for this new means of post-war reconstruction be gained.
The Allied Education Ministers' Conference (CAME), which met regularly in London from 1942 to 1945, had already recognized children's communities as a valuable support system for resocializing children and adolescents damaged by the war. UNESCO, the successor of CAME, also recognized the problems of war-damaged children and the role the founding of children's villages could play: they became an official part of UNESCO policy.
UNESCO passed a resolution to undertake a study on the effect of the war on young people at its first general conference. The Second UNESCO General Conference passed a resolution to create a research and action plan in conjunction with other national and international organizations to deal with the problem of educating war-damaged children and to make a field study on the most significant experiments in this area. As a result of this resolution, Bernard Drzewieski (Poland), who was then head of the UNESCO Reconstruction Department, paid particular attention to the work of children's communities.
A further international development which dealt with children's communities was the establishment of International Study Weeks for the War-damaged Child (SEPEG), which began in Switzerland in 1945.

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FICE is founded
International interest in children's communities led to further UNESCO activities. A meeting of heads of children's villages and other interested persons was called by UNESCO at the Pestalozzi Children's Village in Trogen, Switzerland, in order to found an international organization of children's communities.
In the winter of 1948, Bernard Drzewieski called together a small group of people to inform them about the idea of this international conference; at the time, the goals of the new organization were not yet clear. It was only while preparing the conference that the following themes crystallized: Raising war-damaged children in children's communities and founding a coordinating committee of the heads of these villages.
The meeting of the heads of children's villages, child care staff, psychologists, social workers, and numerous observers and UNESCO workers from eleven UNESCO member states took place in the Pestalozzi Children's Village in Trogen on July 5 - 11, 1948. At this conference, UNESCO provided a forum for the children's communities, permitting these establishments, which had often had to struggle for survival and for respect for their educational methods, to step out of their isolation and experience a sense of solidarity.
One result of this meeting in Trogen was a resolution which defined the basic principles of the children's communities. The high point of the conference, however, was the founding of the "Federation Internationale des Communautes d'Enfants (FICE)" on July 10, 1948 at the Pestalozzi Children's Village, Trogen and Heiden, Switzerland. The main goals of this new organization were the exchange of specialized information and the spreading of new ideas on residential child care. The participants at the conference also saw FICE as an instrument of cultural exchange and understanding between different nations.

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Prime Movers: Elisabeth Rotten and Bernard Drzewieski
As soon as the educational reformer Elisabeth Rotten (1882-1964), Switzerland, heard of the plan to build the Pestalozzi Children's Village in Trogen, she spontaneously offered her help. Like many others, she also considered the resocialization of war-damaged children as a chance to further international understanding. Elisabeth Rotten, who devoted her life to cooperative efforts for peace, humanity, and education took part in the international movement for reform in and outside schools from the beginning of the 20th century onward, the New Education Fellowship. Her great experience and international connections in the field of child care contributed enormously to the organization and growth of the newly-founded FICE.
Another key figure was Bernard Drzewieski (1888-1953), Poland, who did his best to gain international recognition for FICE. For five years during World War II, he had worked for the Polish government in exile in London as head of the Education Department. After UNESCO was founded, he was asked to lead the Reconstruction Department. Bernard Drzewieski, who became an international expert on educational questions in the course of his career, focused his interest above all on aid to war-damaged, abandoned children. On lecture tours and at fund-raising events, he talked about the necessity for children's communities and about the difficulties they encountered. He served as supporter and adviser to FICE, whose growth was of primary importance to him.

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1949 - 1978: ORGANIZATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND TRANSFORMATION Goals, Methods, National Sections
Once FICE was founded in Trogen in 1948, a coordination committee created a legal base for the new organisation. The first task of this committee was to define the concept of children's communities: "Children's communities are permanent educational establishments in which modern education and teaching methods are founded on the active participation of the children and young people in the life of the community, combining family life with different kinds of collective life." This definition was the criterion for admitting further children's communities into the FICE of that time.
The main goal of FICE was to found and support such children's communities. It was to be reached by uniting the children's communities through cooperation and international contacts between child care staff, furthering international contacts among children, and contributing research materials for publication. To increase the influence and to widen the field of activities of the new and as yet unknown organization, the coordination committee named national representatives, but it soon became clear that this task could not be carried out by representatives alone.
That is why numerous European organizations joined FICE in the period from 1949-1957: France (1949), Belgium (1949), Italy (1949), Luxembourg (1950), Switzerland (1951), Federal Republic of Germany (1956), United Kingdom (1956), German Democratic Republic (1957). The first organization from a non-European country to join was FICE-Israel, in 1955. These national sections sometimes have a different name than FICE-International, for example Association Nationale des Communaut6s Educatives (ANCE), Internationale Gesellschaft für Heimerziehung (IGfH), Internationale Vereinigung von Kindergemeinschaften, Nationale Vereinigung der Kinderfreunde, or Ndrodni Sdruieni Detskych Domorü.

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UNESCO and FICE

We have seen what an important part UNESCO played in the founding of FICE. Without the active help of UNESCO, the newly founded organization would not have survived. The resolution proclaiming close cooperation between FICE and UNESCO, which was passed by the founding conference at Trogen and Heiden in 1948, included the following points: organization of conferences and publication of conference reports and articles dealing above all with the problems, experience, and activities of children's communities.
The FICE coordination committee travelled to Paris headquarters regularly in order to take part in UNESCO meetings. Because FICE needed to become much better known and because the children's communities could serve as a kind of model of democratically-run communities, UNESCO gave FICE access to its publications and other media. The high point in this activity was a big radio broadcast about children's communities in Europe.
But this was not enough to consolidate FICE. After the UNESCO Reconstruction Department was dissolved, FICE was threatened with the loss of the moral and financial support of UNESCO. That is why the conscientious Bernard Drzewieski tried to gain consultative status with the UNESCO Executive Council for FICE. This would have created a contractual basis for relations between FICE and UNESCO and served as grounds for UNESCO funding. A first FICE proposal failed in 1949 due to adverse votes from the United States and the United Kingdom UNESCO-Commissions. The refusal was based on the observation that FICE was not yet a solid organization, that it dealt with a secondary aspect of education, and that it included few national sections.
Further negotiations eventually led to success, however: in 1954, FICE was recognized as an Non-governmental Organization (NGO) by UNESCO and was given consultative status. This was a very welcome sign of appreciation for FICE's endeavours. Unfortunately, Bernard Drzewieski did not live to see this development. He died in 1953.
Relations with UNESCO were further strengthened when the Canadian UNESCO-Committee for Reconstruction made funds available to build an international centre at the Pestalozzi Children's Village in Trogen. This

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centre was to be used for congresses in the fields of psychology, medicine, and child care, to provide training courses for child care staff, and to act as a permanent FICE office. The architect Hans Fischli, who also built the Children's Village, drew up the plans for this international centre, the Canada Hall at Trogen. A contract between the Children's Village, FICE, and UNESCO agreed in 1950 that the two educational organizations may use the Canada Hall for twelve weeks per year.
Further remarks on the relationship between UNESCO and FICE can be found in the chapter "FICE on its Way".


International Youth Camps and Training Courses for Child Care Staff
Most of the children living in children's communities had never experienced harmonious family life. They had suffered directly or indirectly from the violence of war. This is why so much educational emphasis was put on integrating these children into their immediate environment, their society, their country, and even the community of nations as a whole. FICE organized international youth camps and training courses to help put these goals into
practice.
The first initiative to establish a youth camp did not come from within FICE itself, but rather from youngsters living in a French children's republic. They contacted FICE with the wish to share the experiences they had in their autonomous children's institution with other young people living in similar establishments. Fifty young people from various places lived together for two weeks in a miniature united nations. In the years that followed, young people from nine countries went to similar camps in Luxembourg and Germany.
UNESCO had begun the tradition of international training courses for child care staff in 1948 by calling the first conference of heads of children's communities in Trogen. FICE included the organization of training courses for child care staff in its goals; in the first years after its founding, further meetings took place in Switzerland, Italy, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

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First Difficulties

At FICE's founding as an organization with international goals in 1948, its international character was based on the fact that the members were the heads of children's villages and child care staff from all over the Western world. All of them had worked with young people in the post-war period; almost none of them had experience in international cooperation, however. An organization had come into being which wanted to act outside strict national boundaries, yet had no base in any particular country, with the exception of various children's communities which were struggling for their existence.
FICE's only real strength at the time lay in the moral support from UNESCO and in the wish to work on an international level. Within UNESCO the newly-founded FICE was soon criticized as an artificial creation lacking in effectiveness. FICE received instructions from Paris to found national organizations so that it would grow into an international organization commanding official respect. As we look back at these organizational difficulties, we must remember that the inner circle of FICE members were all heads of children's communities who were very occupied with their obligations and difficulties and had very little time to spare for their voluntary duties in FICE.
Although the 1948 Conference in Trogen had agreed upon a definition of children's communities, this definition caused some difficulty as a criterion for admission. UNESCO put an end to this problem by attributing consultative status to FICE and by widening its goals from an organization only for children's communities to an organization for residential child care in general.
As long as the UNESCO Reconstruction Department supported FICE with donated funds, its existence was secure. It was only when the UNESCO Reconstruction Department was dissolved and FICE subsidies ended that the pioneering work of the organization was threatened. Financial troubles hung over FICE like dark clouds; the membership fee of two dollars per children's community was of a symbolic nature and could hardly solve the organization's financial problem. The financial difficulty was finally solved at least for a time thanks to the personal effort of Louis Frangois (France),

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a later president of FICE. His position as Secretary of the French UNESCO committee enabled him to attain UNESCO consultative status for FICE, a position which brought annual subsidies with it.
This shows once again how the commitment of strong personalities provided the leadership necessary to guide FICE through its early years. After Bernard Drzewieski's death and Elisabeth Rotten's withdrawal from FICE, another personality, a man with experience in working with young people, became decisive for the fate of FICE: Ren6 de Cooman (Belgium). As president from 1950-1970, he transformed FICE from a small organization of children's communities into a large organization for residential child care. He was very generous in contributing his own money to these efforts as well.


Ideas and Initiatives: New Thinking on Child Development and the New Education Fellowship (NEF)
To understand the ideas on which the work of these first year was based, we must first turn to changes in thinking about child development and upbringing. At the time, the wish for reform focused primarily on the school systems. After the first World War, an association was formed in 1921 called the New Education Fellowship (NEF). Elisabeth Rotten was an active member of this association, so it was no accident that the basic tenets of FICE corresponded to a great extent to those of the NEF.
The goals of the NEF reflected the members' experience in World War I, whereas those of FICE were based on that of World War II. What both organizations had in common was the search for a new form of education based on the realization that something must have been drastically wrong in school education as well as in the attitudes of adults to bringing up children to make such a violent conflict between nations possible. The educationalists of the NEF saw their main goal in discovering and using educational methods to raise peace-loving and peace-making human beings. The FICE children's communities, however, were filled with children who had experienced violent conflicts between people who did not love peace. The NEF strove to renew education in order to raise a generation of citizens

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of the world; the children's communities with their war-damaged children aimed at promoting international cooperation.
Some of the personalities who participated actively in the founding and development of FICE clearly belonged to the New Education Fellowship and attempted to preserve the same spirit among educators which had prevailed in the period between the wars. This attempt was not entirely successful; the explanation, according to Elisabeth Rotten, was that two generations of educators were represented in this organization, one still full of the spirit of the NEF, and the other, which had not experienced the NEF itself, although it was familiar with it.
Both organizations aimed at an educational reform. The NEF was more focused on a general reform of the schools, the FICE, on the other hand, emphasized a renewal in traditional residential child care. FICE saw itself as offering a progressive alternative to child care in institutions using traditional methods.
Wider Goals and New National Sections

Even after various FICE national sections had been founded in the years from 1949-1957, UNESCO still demanded that FICE, which had now attained NGO status, should broaden the international spectrum of its activities. First of all, this meant that more attention had to be drawn to FICE's goals in Europe, and especially that the dialogue between East and West on questions concerning residential child care be furthered. In time, FICE's rather narrow goals got in the way of its development. In 1955, FICE widened its goals to become the international organization for residential child care, and nothing more stood in the way of its continuing development.
It became necessary not only to find out about child care organizations in each country, but also to contact the key personalities who would be willing to cooperate internationally on questions of residential child care. The FICE coordination committee worked tirelessly to make the founding of further national sections possible. In addition to the nine national sections already in existence, new organizations sprang up in the following countries: Austria

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(1959), Czechoslovakia (1960), Sweden(1961), Yugoslavia (1962), Pland (1963), the Netherlands (1969), and Denmark (1975). Some of these founding dates refer to the date of the first meeting of founding committees, and not to the date of admission to FICE-International membership.
With the exception of FICE-Israel, only European national sections existed in FICE-International until 1959. Representatives from India (1959), from Tunisia (1960), Hong Kong (1963), and Algeria (1966) then joined FICE. Some of these were individual members or child care institutions which were interested in FICE. In addition, associations from Morocco (1970) and Iran (1970) joined FICE as associate members. Many people working with children sought out FICE on their own in order to benefit from the organization's experience in dealing with difficult children.
Cooperation with national groups or individual child care staff in Africa and Asia turned out to be more difficult than expected. Attempts to find new child care forms that were adapted to the needs of developing countries to help them solve problems in residential child care or advise them in creating children's communities were not successful in the long run.
Nevertheless, FICE did eventually grow into an international organization with twenty-one national sections whose common aim was to support educational efforts as determined by the goals of UNESCO and the Charter of the Child. More specifically, FICE's goal was to further the idea of children's communities, of international understanding, of the brotherhood of man, and of social responsibility and democracy.
International Conferences and Congresses
Right from the beginning, FICE was involved in organizing international conferences on the subject of residential child care. At first, the dominant theme in FICE activities was that children's communities were better equipped to raise and educate children than the modern nuclear family was, and thus the topics of the first conferences aimed at discussing and furthering the pedagogics of children's communities. In time, the perspective grew to include all forms of residential child care, and the topics discussed at the conferences became wider, including general questions on

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the theory and practice of residential child care and the varying forms of professional training for child care staff in different countries. (See Annex 3)
The campaign criticizing residential child care in the late sixties and early seventies, which brought this form of child care under cross-fire, caused FICE to organize conferences on new developments in this field. In time, the conference themes broadened more and more to include all aspects of child care outside the family.
The official languages at all the FICE conferences were German, French, and English. As the organization grew, so did the language problem, and interpreters had to be employed. Since the use of several languages often made discussions more difficult, regional conferences were also organized.
Criticism Calls for New Standpoint
A campaign criticizing institutional child care began in several countries at the end of 1968. It protested against lower educational opportunities, insufficient professional training programmes, authoritarian methods, and the lack of cooperation between public authorities and the institutions of child care. This campaign was a real challenge to FICE, which had always seen itself as a supporter of reforms in residential child care. In 1971, FICE published a "Manifesto for Progressive Social Child Care". It emphasized FICE's efforts towards developing and spreading new ideas in residential child care and took a stand against bureaucratic and authoritarian education as well as against anti-authoritarian education. As always, FICE's wish was to begin where the family had failed. The goal was personal freedom and individual activity. This meant the development of a democratic way of life in social institutions which would allow all the children, adolescents and child care workers to experience a sense of responsibility towards themselves and others.

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FICE and Children with Handicaps
When UNESCO asked FICE to undertake a study on the social and professional integration of brain-damaged and physically handicapped children in institutions in 1971, this led to a new perspective on the organization's goals. The themes of FICE conferences in the following years show that interest increased in the special child care questions relating to the care of children with handicaps.
The new forms of community child care which emerged from the movement of criticism on the one hand, and the confrontation with the problems of dealing with young people with handicaps on the other, brought about a fundamental discussion within FICE. Some members wanted to hold on to residential institutions as the only form of child care outside the family, while others wished to broaden their perspective to include all other forms of extra-familial child care. Once again, an examination of FICE's goals and methods became necessary.
From Statute Revisions to the Question of a Change in Name
A revision of the 1948-49 Statutes had already been undertaken in 1950. It had dealt primarily with voting rights within the organization. From 1957 on, the wish for further revision of the Statutes increased; the organization's continuing growth did, in fact, call for appropriate representation from the individual national sections. For this reason, FICE was reorganized in 1961: the General Assembly, the Federal Council, and the Executive Committee were to be the governing bodies of FICE. The varying size of national sections and the allocation of votes according to size led to criticism, so that the number of votes per national section was reapportioned.
Special commissions were set up in 1967 to deal with topical problems in residential child care. Among other things, they dealt with educational fundamentals, the origins of abnormal behaviour, the professional situation of child care staff, their training and further education, and with architectural questions. The work done by these special commissions also led to FICE publications: see the publication list in Annex 2 of this brochure.

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Another revision of the Statutes became necessary in 1970-71. Since FICE was dealing with community child care in all its aspects, and not only with children's communities, these new goals had to be set down in the Statutes. In the seventies, a new name for FICE-International also became necessary to reflect the wider goals the organization now had; "Children's Communities" no longer covered the full range of activities in the community child care field. After lengthy discussions about the organization's goals, FICE changed part of its name in 1982. The chapter "FICE on its Way" will describe how this came about.

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1979 - 1988: FICE ON ITS WAY FICE: An Institution Made by People
At the beginning of the 1980s , the long-term President of FICE-International, Raoul Wetzburger, Belgium (1974-1982), resigned from office. The previous Presidents had come from the following countries: Robert Praaut (1948-1949), France; Peggy Volkov (1950), United Kingdom; Rena de Cooman (1950-1970), Belgium; Louis Frangois (1970-1974), France. The newly elected President was Heinrich Tuggener (1982-1988), Switzerland.
The Secretary General and the Treasurer also resigned from office in the early 1980s . The following individuals had held the office of Secretary General up to this time: Marie Meierhofer and Elisabeth Rotten (19481949), Switzerland, who took over the secretariat and the finances for that period of time. Then the following persons held the office of Secretary General: Hans Hoxter, United Kingdom, and Jean Roger, France (1950); Fernand Cortez, France (1951-1966); Josef Docekal, Austria (1967-1973); Othmar Roden, Austria (1973-1984). The newly elected Secretary General was Franz Züsli-Niscosi, Switzerland at the end of 1983.
Treasurers were: Marie Meierhofer and Elisabeth Rotten together in 19481949, then Elisabeth Rotten alone in 1950. She was followed by Edouard Barbel, Luxembourg (1951-1967); Hermann Widmer, Switzerland (1968-1975); Herbert Angst, Switzerland (1975-1984). The new Treasurer was Robert Soisson, Luxembourg (from 1984 on). In 1984, the Federal Council elected Eva Begänovd, Czechoslovakia, as representative from the Socialist countries for financial questions.
Many other individuals also worked and still do work for FICE. In addition to the presidents and secretaries of the national sections, we must honour the contributions of the vice-presidents of the umbrella organization. By the 1980s , the vice-presidents were increasingly included in FICE activities, and other colleagues were charged with heading special commissions, as well. This has been the case for Congress preparations, for FICE publications or work on the FICE Glossary, and for organizing conferences.

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FICE on its Way

In the late seventies, the administrative burden carried by the Federal Council and the Executive Committee grew, leaving too little time for child care considerations. FICE had to deal with its inner organization once again, and new guidelines emerged: the Federal Council runs FICE policy by meeting twice a year and increasing its involvement with child care issues. The Executive Commitee prepares the Federal Council's work, makes basic administrative decisions, and determines relations with other international organizations. These tasks are carried out by the Secretariat, which is also responsible for all activities not specifically attributed to the other bodies. The Treasurer runs the finances and is responsible for the annual financial statement, the balance sheet, and the budget. These organizational guidelines will hopefully give the Federal Council more time for its professional tasks.
A new revision of the Statutes was certainly necessary by the late seventies. The Executive Committee postponed this matter for the time being, however, giving child care tasks and administrative work the priority, and an information brochure about FICE was published which gave everyone the opportunity to help determine FICE goals and membership. This led to discussions on the strengths and weaknesses of FICE, thereby paving the way for a later Statute revision. Our goal is and remains our professional work in child care, and not legal quarrels!
The focus has been centered especially on child care issues when national study groups and the Federal Council prepared the themes for each Congress. FICE-International is in charge of the international Congresses, which are organized by a host national section. Annex 3 to this brochure contains the Congress themes, while Annex 2 shows the corresponding publications.
To further the goal of exchanging information, FICE made an attempt in 1984-1986 to work out a survey of "The Present Situation of Residential Child Care in Europe". This goal could only be reached in part; it would have taken more people and better financing to really get a deeper view of the many different kinds of establishments and institutions. The same holds true for the theme of "Prevention in Residential Child Care", which

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did, however, lead to a small publication in modified form:
James P. Anglin, "Parent Education and Support: Prevention and Intervention", SCA Publications 1987, England.
Relations with other international organizations increased in the eighties. FICE was recognized as a NGO of UNICEF in 1987 and wishes to work more closely with this organization in the future. FICE also participated in various United Nations and UNESCO activities, acting as a source of professional information. In particular, participation was intensive in the 1979 International Year of the Child and the 1981 International Year for Disabled Persons. FICE and its national sections also took part in International Youth Year in 1985 and in the International Year of Peace in 1986. United Nations Secretary General Javier P6rez de Cuellar named FICE-International a "Peace Messenger" on September 15, 1987. Even though many other organizations also received this honour, FICE still sees it as a form of recognition for its efforts towards an education for peace.
Working on numerous UNESCO questionnaires also forced FICE to take a close look at its own finances; active participation in larger, longer-term UNESCO programmes would not only have meant subsidies, but also additional personnel and other costs. After the United States and other countries withdrew from UNESCO in 1984, FICE no longer received the annual contributions from UNESCO for publications and congresses, as it had before. This was the case for many UNESCO NGOs. In 1986, a FICE delegation went to Paris to discuss this matter, which has a detrimental effect both on FICE finances and on its effectiveness as a whole. FICE will remain a NGO of UNESCO, but expects financial help within the realm of what is possible.
Because of its NGO status with UNESCO, FICE also cooperates with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC, based in Vienna) on all matters concerning residential child care. FICE applied for admission to Category II in 1988. The situation is similar in regards to cooperation with the European Community and its branches dealing with community child care: the 1988 General Assembly will decide whether a special FICE commission at national section level will take on this coordination task. The Secretary General is also examining possibilities of cooperation with the

70
Council of Europe, but the Federal Council will not make a decision on this matter until 1989 at the earliest.
Regional FICE Congresses and individual exchanges also increased the contact between national sections. With the approval of the Federal Council, the Secretariat founded FICE Publishers in 1986 to ensure wider distribution of FICE publications (see Annex 2). Individual national sections also publish books or periodicals.
It became necessary not only to increase the efficiency of the organization as a whole, but also to strengthen the national sections, as some had left FICE for a variety of reasons. Contact was taken up with government officials or administrators in the field of child care in Spain, Portugal, Greece, the U.S.A. and Canada, the U.S.S.R., Finland, Norway, Italy, and the United Kingdom. This led to the admission of Ireland (1979), and the readmission of Italy as associate member (1986, Centro Educativo ItaloSvizzero) and of FICE-United Kingdom as a full member (1986, Social Care Association). The 1988 General Assembly will admit representatives from the U.S.A. and Canada, FICE-North America, an associate member since 1986, to full membership, and representatives from Norway to associate membership.
However, FICE's busy life does not consist of work alone! We cannot close this chapter without mentioning the many friendships and friendly contacts which have sprung up within FICE.
A Small Change in Name Means a Change in Identity
At its founding in 1948, FICE was called "Federation Internationale des Communautes d'Enfants": children's communities were the focus of attention. The English name given the organization at this time was IFCC, the International Federation of Children's Communities.
In the meantime, FICE acitivities have spread from children's communities to include residential child care and all community care, although residential child care is still the focal point. At the 1982 Federal Council meeting in Kbszeg, Hungary, the members decided to change FICE's name to fit its wider goals, but without changing the initials. The words "Communaut6s

71
d'Enfants" in the name were changed to "Communaut6s Educatives": Fr dt ration Internationale des Communautös Educatives / International Federation of Educative Communities (FICE) / Internationale Gesellschaft für Heimerziehung (IGfH).


FICE expressed its new identity in the change of name and, as this chapter shows, changed not only its goals, but its actual activities, as well. In the mid-eighties, discussions on the limits and possibilities of the social welfare state also led FICE to take a definite stand on this question. This was done at the 1986 FICE Congress in Malm6, Sweden, whose theme was "Community Care - Inside and Outside Residential Settings". The child care staff, social workers, administrators, educationalists and other individuals present expressed their opinion in the Malmö Declaration of FICE.
This Malmö Declaration is an urgent appeal to all those who hold political responsibility everywhere, reminding them never to neglect children and adolescents in trouble with themselves or their environment, for they are the weakest link in our society!
And the Future?
The development of children's villages and of residential and community child care has provided places where young people live and which they eventually leave with many questions in mind to ask themselves and the institutions they are leaving behind. The helpers, too, are left with many questions - and it is the task of FICE to answer them.
Through its history FICE is committed to the future. This was powerfully expressed by the Swiss philosopher Walter Robert Corti when he sent out an appeal in 1944: "Let us build a world in which children can live:" We thank all the friends of FICE for helping to build this future.

Translated from the German text by:
B. Neuhauser, Zurich (FICE-International Secretariat)

73 Annexe/Anhang/Addendum 1

SOURCES ET MATERIEL CHOISIS SUR L'HISTOIRE DE LA FICE AUSGEWÄHLTE QUELLEN UND MATERIALIEN ZUR FICE-GESCHICHTE SELECTED REFERENCES TO FICE HISTORY SOURCES AND MATERIALS
Balbernie, R.: Residential work with children. Oxford: Pergamon Press 1966
Bourguet, G.: Dix ans dans d'action au service de l'enfant. Hrsg. von Fédération Internaitonale des Communautés d'Enfants. Charleroi: s.n.o.J.
Brosse, T.: Enfants sans foyer. Compte rendu des travaux de la conférence des directeurs de communautés d'enfants Trogen-Heiden/Suisse. Paris: UNESCO 1949
Corti, W.: Genese der Kinderdorfbewegung. In: Blätter der Wohlfahrtspflege 2/1966, S. 35-38
Ferrière, A.: L'autonomie des écoliers dans les communautés d'enfants. Neuchâtel: Delachaux et Niestle 1950
François, C.: Les rencontres internationales d'educateurs. Hrsg. von Fédération Internationale des Communautés d'Enfants. Charleroi: s.n.o.J.
International Federation of Children's Communities. Hrsg. von Fédération Internationale des Communautés d'Enfants. Charleroi: s.n. 1972
Kissner, V.: Elisabeth Rotten - Ein Beitrag zur reformpädagogischen Bewegung. Unveröffentlichte Magisterarbeit. Universität Giessen BRD 1986
Knöpfet, J.: Die Gründungsgeschichte der Fédération Internationale des Communautés d'Enfants. Unveröffentlichte Lizentiatsarbeit. Pädagogisches Institut Universität Zürich CH 1987 (Dissertation im FICE-Verlag in Vorbereitung)
Macard le, D.: Children of Europe. London: Victor Golaucz 1949
Meierhofer, M.: La participation de la Suisse à l'aide internationale aux enfants victimes de la guerre. In: Revue Suisse d'Hygiène 8/1949, S. 359-862
Obitnary Bernard Drzewieski. In: Times 20.8.1953, S. 8
Oswald, S.: Zur UNESCO-Konferenz der Leiter von Kinderdörfern in Trogen. In: NZZ 12.7.1948 Nr. 1482
Steiger, E.: Internationale Beziehungen in der Sozialarbeit. In: Gesundheit und Wohlfahrt 8/1950, S. 341-377
Rotten, E.: Die erste internationale Konferenz der Leiter von Kinderdörfern. In: NZZ 26.7.1948 Nr. 1576
Rotten, E.: Les communautés d'enfants. Un espoir pour les victimes de la guerre. Paris: UNESCO 1949
Rotten, E.: Auswirkungen des internationalen Kinderdorfes Pestalozzi in Trogen. In: Die Friedenswarte 1/1949, S. 19-23
74 Annexe/Anhang/Addendum 2 PUBLICATIONS DE LA FICE-INTERNATIONALE ET DES EDITIONS FICE PUBLIKATIONEN DER FICE-INTERNATIONAL UND DES FICE-VERLAGES
FICE-INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATIONS
Les titres des années 1955-1978 sont épuisés auprès du Secrétariat général de la FICE-Internationale. Ilssont énumérés par ordre chronologique dans la vue d'ensemble suivante.
Die Titel aus den Jahren 1955-1978 sind beim Generalsekratariat der FICEInternational vergriffen. In der nachfolgenden Uebersicht werden sie in chronologischer Folge aufgeführt.
Titles from 1955-1978 are out of print and not available from the FICEInternational Secretariat. They are listed in chronological order here.
1955 LA CITE DE L'ENFANCE A MARCINELLE (France). Volkov, Peggy.

1956 L'INSTITUT MEDICO-PEDAGOGIQUE DE LA MAYOTTE, à Montlignon (France). Cortez, Fernand.

1957 ALONEY YITZHAK - A YOUTH VILLAGE IN ISRAEL. Super, Arthur Saul.

1957 YOUTH ALIYAH - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. Kol, Moshe. Introduction by Mrs Franklin D. Roosevelt (FICE Documents No. 1).

1957 LA FEDERATION DES RAYONS DE SOLEIL DE FRANCE, FOYERS FAMILIAUX. Bourguet, Georges.

1958 LE HOME ESPERANCE POUR ENFANTS DEBILES, à Coq-sur-Mer (Belgique). Hotyat, Fernand.

1958 ALONEY YITZHAK - UN VILLAGE D'ENFANTS EN ISRAEL. Super, Arthur Saul.

1958 BEN-SHEMEN - A CHILDREN'S VILLAGE IN ISRAEL. Bentwich, Norman.

1959 La Fédération Internationale des Communautés d'Enfants - DIX ANS D'ACTION AU SERVICE DE L'ENFANCE. Bourguet, Georges.

1959 LES RENCONTRES INTERNATIONALES D'EDUCATEURS DE LA FICE - Problèmes pédagogiques. François, Claude.

1959 L'ACCEPTATION DE SOI-MEME PAR L'ENFANT HANDICAPE. Sicième Rencontre Internationale d'éducateurs.

1960 THE CALDECOTT COMMUNITY - A SURVEY OF FORTY-EIGHT YEARS. Rendel, Leila M.

1960 RAMAT-HADASSAH-SZOLD - YOUTH ALIYAH SCREENING AND CLASSIFICATION CENTRE. Kahanoff, Jacqueline.
75
1960 LA NOTION DE LIBERTE CHEZ L'ADOLESCENT EN COMMUNAUTE D'ENFANTS. Septième Rencontre Internationale d'éducateurs.

1961 LA FORMATION DE LA MORALITE CHEZ L'ENFANT ELEVE EN INSTITUTION. Huitième Rencontre Internationale d'éducateurs.

1962 PESTALOZZI CHILDREN'S VILLAGE TROGEN - AN EXPERIMENT IN INTERNATIONAL LIVING. Hicklin, Margot.
1962 DAS LANDESERZIEHUNGSHEIM ODENWALDSCHULE. Schegelmilch, Wolfgang.

1962 THE ELEANOR ROOSEVELT YOUTH CENTRE IN BEERSHEBA. Hanegbi, Yehudi.

1962 BEN METIER, PREMIER VILLAGE D'ENFANTS TUNESIEN. Jouini, Hassouna.

1962 NE'URIM - THE RURAL VOCATIONAL TRAINING CENTRE OF YOUTH ALIYAH AND HADASSAH. Pincus, Chasya.

1963 REBELLES SANS CAUSE. Lavachery, Jean. 1965 ALIYAH DES JEUNES. Kol, Moshe.

1965 L'ADOPTION DE L'ENFANT SANS FAMILLE. Comptes rendus du colloque tenu à Bruxelles le 13 mars 1965.

1965 L'ECOLE DE PLEIN AIR DE SURESNES. Laoapere, Simone.

1965 AKTIVE KINDER. Theorie und Praxis eines Erziehungsversuches im Kinderdorf. Birzele, Karl.

1966 L'EDUCATEUR ET L'ENFANT AGRESSIF. Par le groupe de travail du foyer des "Glycines" O.S.E. à Draveil (France).

1966 LE CENTRE DEPARTEMENTAL DU VALENTIN, à Bour-Les-Valence. Une communauté d'enfants cas sociaux. Reynaud, Jacques.

1966 ENFANT, FAMILLE ET SOCIETE URBAINE. Cortez, Fernand.

1966 L'ENFANT TEMOIN. Colloque de Charleroi les 11 et 12 avril 1964.

1967 STRUKTUR DER GRUPPE IN KINDERDÖRFERN UND HEIMEN. Bericht über die regionale Studientagung der FICE in Graz (Oesterr.)

1966 AMOUR ET PROTECTION POUR TOUS LES ENFANTS: Journées d'études à Tabarz (DDR).

1967 PERSPECTIVES PEDAGOGIQUES DE L'EDUCATION PRECOCE ET PRESCOLAIRE DES ENFANTS DEFICIENTS AUDITIFS.

1969 L'ENFANT EN SITUATION D'ABANDON. Par l'équipe du foyer "Les Glycines" O.S.E. à Draveil (France).
76
1971 AUS- UND FORTBILDUNG VON ERZIEHERN FÜR DIE ARBEIT IM HEIM. BRD Ergebnisse einer Studientagung in Westberlin.
1971 DAS KIND ZWISCHEN HEIM, ELTERNHAUS UND VERWALTUNG. Bericht vom FICE-Kongress in Königstein (BRD).
1972 FICE - FEDERATION INTERNATIONALE DES COMMUNAUTES D'ENFANTS. Werbebroschüre.
1972 ARCHITEKTURALE KONZEPTION DER KINDERHEIME.
1973 VORBEREITUNGEN ZUR GESELLSCHAFTLICHEN EINGLIEDERUNG VON KINDERN UND JUGENDLICHEN MIT ENTWICKLUNGSSTÖRUNGEN. Bericht vom FICE-Kongress in Warschau.
1975 PROBLEME DER THEORETISCHEN UND PRAKTISCHEN ERZIEHUNGSAUSBILDUNG IN GEGENWART UND ZUKUNFT.
1978 BEHINDERTE KINDER UND JUGENDLICHE IM HEIM - MÖGLICHKEITEN DER INTEGRATION IN FAMILIE UND GESELLSCHAFT. Ergebnisse des FICE-Kongresses in Graz (Oesterr.).
FICE-VERLAG ZÜRICH
1981 LEBEN MIT ANDEREN ALS BERUF - DER SOZIALPÄDAGOGE IN EUROPA. Hrsg. Heinrich Tuggener et al., Zürich 1981, 221 Seiten, (vergriffen).
1984 THE SOCIALPEDAGOGUE IN EUROPE - LIVING WITH OTHERS AS A PROFESSION. Hrsg. Heinrich Tuggener et al., Zürich 1984, 197 Seiten, ISBN 3-905607-01-8. SFr. 20.
1984 SOCIALPAEDAGOG I EUROPA (Dänische Uebersetzung des "Leben mit anderen ..."). Hrsg. FICE-Dänemark 1984, 124 Seiten, ISBN 87-981187-2-2. DKr. 75.
1986 AKTUELLE PROBLEME JUGENDLICHER IN DER HEIMERZIEHUNG IN EUROPA. Texte zum FICE-Kongress vom 6.-9. Juni 1985 in Luxemburg. Hrsg. Robert Soisson, Luxemburg 1986, 302 Seiten, ISBN 3-905607-02-6. SFr. 18.
1987 MALMÖER ERKLÄRUNG. Hrsg. FICE-International, Zürich 1987, 28 Seiten (deutsch/französisch/englisch), ISBN 3-905607-04-2. SFr. 3.(Kurzfassungen in hebräischer, ungarischer und weiteren Sprachen erhältlich.)
1987 AUSSERFAMILIÄRE ERZIEHUNG IN UND AUSSERHALB VON EINRICHTUNGEN DER HEIMERZIEHUNG. Texte zum Internationalen FICE-Kongress 1986 in Malmö. Hrsg. Leo E.E. Ligthart, Zürich 1987, 278 Seiten, ISBN 3-905607-06-9. SFr. 20.-
77
1988 KINDERGEMEINSCHAFTEN-HEIMERZIEHUNG-AUSSERFAMILIARE ERZIEHUNG. Jubiläumsbroschüre "40 Jahre FICE-International. Hrsg. FICE-International, Zürich 1988, 84 Seiten (deutsch/französisch/ englisch), ISBN 3-905607-05-0. SFr. 6.

1989 In Vorbereitung: Texte zum Internationalen FICE-Kongress 1988 in St. Gallen, Schweiz. ISBN 3-905607-07-7.
Commandes aux éditions FICE sont à adresser à: Bestellungen für den FICE-Verlag an: Please order publications from:
FICE-International ONG-UNESCO-UNICEF
Ramistrasse 27

CH - 8001 Zürich, Suisse
Quelques sections nationales disposent de leurs propres séries de publications ou éditent des périodiques: adresser les demandes directement aux section nationales.
La liste des membres 1988 peut être commandée à l'adresse mentionnée en haut.
Einzelne Nationalsektionen verfügen über eigene Publikationsreihen oder geben Periodika heraus: Anfragen bitte direkt an die Nationalsektionen.
Die Mitgliederliste 1988 kann bei der oben genannten Adresse angefordert werden.
Some national sections publish books and periodicals themselves. Please order directly from the national sections. The list of members 1988 can be ordered at the above mentioned address.
1958 Jerusalem Israel
1959 Wien Oesterreich
1960 Zürich Schweiz
1961 Tunis Tunesien
1962 Prag Tschechoslowakei
1963 Malmö Schweden
1964 Ljubljana Jugoslawien
40 ANS FICE-INTERNATIONALE / 40 JAHRE FICE-INTERNATIONAL / 40 YEARS FICE-INTERNATIONAL
Assemblées générales, séances élargiesdu Conseil fédéral, journées d'études et congrès: dates, lieux, thèmes Generalversammlungen, erweiterte Verbandsratssitzungen, Studientage und Kongresse: Daten, Orte, Themen General Assemblies, Expanded Federal Council Meetings, Training Courses and Congresses: Dates, Places, Themes
1948 Trogen/Heiden Schweiz Die Erziehung von kriegsgeschädigten Kindern und Jugendlichen
L'éducation des enfants victim es de guerre
The education of war-handicapped children
1949 Belgien Les problèmes éducatifs de l'enfance vagabonde
1950 Lyon Frankreich Pourquoi l'éducation de l'enfance inadaptée est-elle un problème
capital aujourd'hui?
Co
1951 Florenz Italien Les besoins affectifs des enfants sans famille
1952 Strassburg Frankreich Le problème de l'éducateur
1954 Boulouris sur Mer Frankreich Les communautés d'enfants comme solution au problème mon dial de l'enfant sans foyer D
L'apprentissage de la démocratie en communauté d'enfants
((DD
x
1955 Courcelles Belgien e
L'éducation en fonction des droits de l'homme et de l'enfant D
Les préjugés en éducation
1956 Heppenheim Bundesrepublik La mentalité des enfants et des jeunes à la suite de la guerre
Deutschland et de l'après-guerre à la lumière des expériences des comD a
munautés d'enfants
rn
c
1957 Brighton Grossbritannien a
Kinder- und Jugendfürsorge: Privat- und Staatsinitiative
Ist Zuneigung hinreichend? B
w
Soins aux enfants: action de l'état et des particuliers Affection est-ce suffisant?
State and independent provision for child care Is love enough?
L'éducation pour le travail et par le travail dans les communautés d'enfants
L'éducation individuelle et en groupe dans les communautés d'enfants
Ziel und Methoden der pädagogischen Arbeit im Kinderdorf Die Stille / Le silence / The silence

Die Probleme der Kindergemeinschaften in den Entwicklungsländern
Les problèmes des communautés d'enfants dans les pays en voie de développement

Das Prinzip der Verbindung von Erziehung und Leben
Les relations de l'éducation et de la culture des enfants et des jeunes dans les communautés d'enfants avec la vie
Der Einfluss des Kulturmilieus auf die Anpassung der Kinder und der Jugend
L'influence du milieu culturel sur l'adaption sociale des enfants et des adolescents
The influence of cultural environment on the adjustment of children and adolescents
Aktivität und Engagement von Kindern und Jugendlichen im Leben der Gemeinschaften
L'activité et l'engagement des jeunes dans la vie des communautés d'enfants
CD
1965 London 1966 Tabarz
1967 Wien 1968 Trogen
1969 Klemskerke 1970 Budapest
1971 Königstein
Activity and engagement of youth through children's communities

Grossbritannien Das Heimmilieu in Theorie und Praxis
Le milieu institutionel
The residential environment: theory und practice
Deutsche Demo- Die sozialpädagogische Aufgabe der Heimerziehung in der kratische DDR
Republik La tâche socio-pédagogique de l'éducation dans les maisons d'enfants en République Démocratique d'Allemagne
Oesterreich Heimerziehung in Oesterreich
Education en communautés d'enfants en Autriche Education in children communities in Austria
Schweiz Etudes des nouvelles orientations de la FICE
Belgen Erziehung in Kindergemeinschaften durch Leben fürs Leben Education en communautés d'enfants pour la vie et par la vie Education in children's communities, for life, through life
Ungarn Heimerziehung in Ungarn
L'éducation dans les communautés d'enfants en Hongrie Child Care in Hungary
Bundesrepublik Das Kind zwischen Heim, Elternhaus und Verwaltung
L'enfant entre la communauté d'enfants, les parents et l'administration
The child between home, parents and administration

Die Vorbereitung zur gesellschaftlichen Eingliederung mancher Kinder mit Entwicklungshemmungen und Behinderungen
L'insertion professionnelle et sociale des enfants et adolescents inadaptés dans les établissements de l'assistance à la jeunesse et dans les foyers éducatifs
Frankreich Die Aus- und Fortbidung der Lehrer und Erzieher in Kinderund Jugendheimen
Formation et perfectionnement des enseignants et des éducateurs de communautés d'enfants
Training and improving of teachers and educators

Jugoslawien Analyse der Möglichkeiten und der Ziele für die Behandlung und Resozialisierung gefährdeter Jugend

Niederlande Neue Entwicklungen von Hilfeleistungen im Heimbereich
Grossbritannien Integrierte Heimerziehung Education intégrée Integrated caring
Oesterreich Heimerzieherausbildung in Europa
La formation des éducateurs spécialisés en Europe

Oesterreich Behinderte Kinder und Jugendliche im Heim - Möglichkeiten der Integration in Familie und Gesellschaft

Irland Das Kind und seine Bedürfnisse innerhalb und ausserhalb der Familie und deren Erfüllung in bezug auf die Grundsätze der Deklaration der Rechte des Kindes
Israel Erziehung benachteiligter Kinder und Jugendlicher in Internaten und Heimen
Residential education for disadvantaged youth
ô
1972 Warschau
Deutschland Polen
1973 Paris
1974 Banjaluka
1975 Amsterdam 1976 Aberdeen
1977 Wien 1978 Graz 1979 Dublin
1981 Hadassah Neurim
1982 Köszeg
Ungarn Zukunft der FICE - Aufgaben und Ziele der 80iger Jahre
1984 Luminy/ Marseille Frankreich Erziehungsgemeinschaften und Alltagskultur
Zugang zu Kultur, Sport und Freizeitgestaltung für Jugendliche
in Schwierigkeiten - Rolle der Erziehungsgemeinschaften Communautés et culture
Accès à la culture, aux sports et aux loisirs des jeunes en difficulté - Rôle des communautés éducatives
1985 Luxembourg Aktuelle Probleme Jugendlicher in der Heimerziehung in Europa
Problèmes des jeunes dans les institutions de placement en Europe
Current problems of young people in institutions in Europe
1986 Malmö Schweden Ausserfamiliäre Erziehung in- und ausserhalb von Einrichtungen der Heimerziehung Education en communauté ou éducation communautaire
Community care inside and outside residential settings
w
1988 St. Gallen/Trogen Schweiz Privat geboren für Öffentliches Leben? ro
L'enfant: être individuel né pour la société? Born in privacy to live in society?
83 Annexe/Anhang/Addendum 4
CONFERENCE DE LA CREATION DE LA FICE A TROGEN DU
5 AU 11 JUILLET 1948: LISTE DES PARTICIPANTS GRONDUNGSKONFERENZ IN TROGEN, 5.-11. JULI 1948: TEILNEHMERLISTE
MEMBERSHIP LIST OF THE FOUNDING MEETING IN TROGEN, JULY 5-11, 1948
Experts
Mlle Gwendolen Chesters (Royaume-Uni), Children's Branch, British Home Office, Londres.
Le professeur E. Codignola (Italie), président de la "Scuola Città Pestalozzi", Florence, membre de la commission nationale italienne de l'UNESCO.
M.H.Z. Hoxter (Royaume-Uni), ancien secrétaire général de la "Nursery School Association of Great Britain", Londres.
Le Dr R. Hrabar (Pologne), du Ministère du travail et de l'assistance sociale à Varsovie.
Le Dr Marie Meierhofer (Suisse), chef des travaux médicaux et psychologiques du village Pestalozzi à Trogen.
Le Dr R. Préaut (France), directeur du hameau-école de l'Ile-de-France de Longueil-Annel, ancien secrétaire général du Conseil technique de l'enfance déficiente et en danger moral.
Le professeur A. Rey (Suisse), de l'Institut des sciences de l'éducation de l'Université de Genève.
Padre A. Rivolta (Italie), fondateur du "Village del Fanciullo" de Civita Vecchia.
M.G. Ryser (Suisse), directeur du Cours international de moniteurs de Genève.
Le Dr Peggy Volkov (Royaume-Uni), de la "New Education Fellowship", ré
dacteur de "The New Era in Home and School".
Le Dr Carleton Washburne (Etats-Unis), United States Information Service, président international de la "New Education Fellowship".
Représentants des communautés d'enfants
Le Dr Zsigmond Adam (Hongrie), directeur de la "ville d'enfants" de
Hajduhadhas.
M.A. Bill (Suisse), directeur pour l'éducation du village Pestalozzi, Tropen.
M.C. Bourguet (France), co-directeur du "Rayon de soleil" de Pomeyrol. . Le Dr E. Mendès da Costa (Pays-Bas), secrétaire honoraire du Conseil d'ad
ministration, Fondation pour 500 enfants israélites à Apeldoorn.
M.R. de Cooman (Belgique), président du Conseil d'administration de la Cité de l'enfance, Charleroi.
Le Dr A. Dailemans (Belgique), directeur médical du Foyer des orphelins, Cité joyeuse, Molenbeek.
M. de Gronckel (Belgique), secrétaire général du Foyer des orphelins, Cité joyeuse, Molenbeek.
M.G.C. Jachia (Italie), "Città dei ragazzi", Turin.
M.H. Julien (France), directeur de la république d'enfants de Moulin-Vieux, par Levaldens, Isère.
84
Le Dr Annamaria Princigalli (Italie), directrice du Collège de renaissance pour les orphelins de la guerre, Novara..
Mlle Barbara Stratiesky (Italie), directrice adjointe du "Giardino di infanzia i talo-svi z zero", Rimini.
Mlle M. Zoebeli (Italie), directrice adjointe du "Giardino di infanzia italosvizzero", Rimini.
M.R. Vidonne (France), instituteur, le "Home de Pringy", Haute-Savoie.
M.F. Wezel (Suisse), directeur administratif adjoint, village Pestalozzi, Trogen Autres participants
M.W. Lauper (Suisse), président du Comité exécutif, Association du village Pestalozzi.
Mme Helliesen Lund (Norvège), membre du Conseil d'administration, "Save the Children Fund", Oslo.
Le Dr Elizabeth Rotten (Suisse), chef de l'Office d'échange culturels du Don suisse, Berne.
Observateurs
Le Dr Morton et Mme Frieda Bredsdorff (Danemark), de "Red Barnet".
Le Dr C. Busnelli (Italie), médecin psychologue, "Village del Fanciullo", Civita Veccia.
Le Dr O. Forel (Suisse), président des Semaines d'études pour l'enfance victime de la guerre, Riehen, près Bâle.
Mlle Rachel Gampert (Suisse), du Bureau international d'éducation à Genève. M. le ministre de l'éducation de Malte, le Dr G.G. Ganado.
M. Grandjean (Suisse), du Département politique fédéral, Berne. M.P.J. Naudi (Malte), secrétaire du ministre de l'éducation.
Mme René Remande (France), Fédération des Rayons de soleil, Saint- Etiennedu-G rès.
Le Dr Gertrud Renggli-Geiger (Suisse), de "Pro Juventute", Zurich.
Le Dr L. Verhoestraete (Belgique), du Fonds international de secours à l'enfance, Paris.
Mme Marie Small de Morsier (Suisse), Union- internationale de protection de l'enfance.
Membres du Secrétariat de l'UNESCO
M. Bernard Drzewieski (Pologne), chef du Département de la reconstruction.
Le Dr Thérèse Brosse (France), chargée du programme de l'enfance victime de la guerre pour 1948, Département de l'éducation.
Le professeur Chuang (Chine), spécialiste du programme, Département de la reconstruction.
M. Robert Stanforth (Etats-Unis), consultant du Département de la reconstruction, Bureau de New York.
Mlle Glenys Jones (Royaume-Uni), spécialiste adjointe du programme, Département de la reconstruction.
FICE
Seule organisation internationale défendant les aspects positifs de l'éducation extra-familiale. Organisation internationale non-gouvernementale (ONG) avec statut consultatif auprès de l'UNESCO.

La FILE s'engage à défendre les droits de l'enfant, sans considération de nationalité, de race ou de religion. Elle s'intéresse avant tout aux enfants et adolescents qui doivent grandir dans des conditions menaçant leur développement physique, psychique et social.

La FILE s'efforce de promouvoir toutes les formes d'éducation extra-familiale et en particulier celle dans les communautés éducatives, par
• des journées d'études et des congrès internationaux
• des publications sur des thèmes d'actualité
• des échanges d'éducateurs et de spécialistes
• des conseils aux instances publiques
• des contributions aux travaux de recherche
• des échanges de réflexions et des relations internationales
• des colonies de vacances internationales

La FILE est neutre de toute tendance politique et religieuse et rejette toute discrimination raciale. Ses membres adhèrent aux objectifs de l'ONU et de l'UNESCO.

La FICE regroupe des sections nationales. Les instances de la FICE sont:
• l'Assemblée générale (AG): elle se rencontre tous les deux
ans pour fixer les lignes directrices de l'activité de la FILE
• le Conseil fédéral (CF): il rassemble les délégués de toutes les sections nationales et se réunit deux fois par an
• le Comité exécutif (CE): il se retrouve quatre fois par an et se compose d'au moins du Président, du Secrétaire général et du Trésorier.

Les sections nationales de la FICE sont diverses dans leur structure. En général elles regroupent des institutions (établissements pour handicapés, foyers d'accueil, centres de formation professionnelle et de mise au travail, ateliers protégés et centres d'aide par le travail, instituts de formation de pédagogues et d'éducateurs, etc.) ainsi que des membres individuels (directeurs et collaborateurs d'établissements spécialisés, membres des professions sanitaires et socioéducatives, scientifiques, représentants des services publics et des administrations, des sympathisants et bienfaiteurs).
FICE
Einzige internationale Organisation für alle Anliegen der ausserfamiliären Erziehung. Nichtstaatliche Organisation (ONG) mit beratendem Status bei der UNESCO.

Die FICE setzt sich ein für die Rechte des Kindes, gleichgültig welcher Nation, Rasse oder Religion es angehört. Ihr Interesse gilt vor allem jenen Kindern, die unter Bedingungen aufwachsen, welche ihre physische, psychische und soziale Entwicklung gefährden.

Die FICE bemüht sich um die Weiterentwicklung aller Formen der ausserfamiliären Erziehung, insbesondere der Heimerziehung durch:
• internationale Studientagungen und Kongresse
• Publikationen zu aktuellen Themen der ausserfamiliären
Erziehung
• Austausch von Mitarbeitern
• Beratung öffentlicher Instanzen
• Anregung von Forschungsarbeiten
• Förderung des Gedankenaustausches und der kollegialen Beziehungen über die Grenzen hinweg
• Vermittlung von Ferienaufenthalten für Kindergruppen

Die FILE ist politisch und religiös neutral und lehnt jede rassische Diskriminierung ab. Die Mitglieder stimmen mit den Zielen der UNO und der UNESCO überein.

Die FICE besteht aus Nationalsektionen. Die Organe der FICE sind:
• die Generalversammlung (GV): sie tagt alle zwei Jahre und legt die Grundlinien der FICE-Tätigkeit fest
• der Verbandsrat (CF): er umfasst je zwei Delegierte aller Nationalsektionen; er tritt zweimal im Jahr zusammen
• der geschäftsführende Ausschuss (CE): er trifft sich viermal im Jahr und besteht mindestens aus dem Präsidenten, dem Generalsekretär und dem Schatzmeister.

Die FICE-Nationalsektionen sind unterschiedlich organisiert.
In der Regel gehören ihnen Institutionen an wie Heime und andere Einrichtungen der ausserfamiliären Erziehung, Schulen und Werkstätten für Behinderte, Ausbildungsstätten für Sozialund Sonderpädagogen usw. Die FICE-Nationalsektionen nehmen auch Einzelmitglieder auf wie Leiter und Mitarbeiter von Einrichtungen, Wissenschaftler, Vertreter von Amtsstellen und Ministerien im Sozial-, Erziehungs- und Gesundheitswesen sowie Freunde und Gönner.